Skip to main content

Audio Engineering Explained - Record and Mix Music Professionally

October 24, 2023 / Tero Potila

The back of an audio engineer infront of a mixing console in the studio

One of the most vital roles of an audio engineer is getting the artistic vision to come to life. But what exactly does audio engineering entail, and how does it apply to music production and sound design?

Audio engineering is all about capturing, processing, and manipulating sound in various media formats, from music tracks recorded in the studio to live performances and broadcasts. 

As an audio engineer, your main responsibility is to make sure the final audio output meets the desired quality standards, whether working in a recording studio, at a live event, or even in a film production. It's a delicate balancing act of adjusting and fine-tuning various sound sources, using a range of techniques and audio effects to create the perfect mix.

It's an exciting role; you get to work closely with musicians, producers, and other music industry professionals in various settings.

Read more: 16 Tips How To Become A Successful Audio Engineer

The Audio Engineer's Toolbox

The job of an audio engineer requires you to master a range of skills. This skillset, often referred to as the audio engineer's toolbox, will help you handle some key equipment and software crucial for audio engineering.


First and foremost, an audio engineer needs to have a solid understanding of all the hardware tools. This includes a computer, various microphones, preamps, cables, connectors, mixing consoles, studio monitors, headphones, and audio interfaces.

Read more: 7 Steps to Set Up a Music Recording Studio at Home

The Microphone

The first tool in the audio engineer’s toolbox is a studio-quality microphone, which captures all of the sounds necessary to create a high-quality audio file. Studio microphones capture sound from various instruments, and many audio engineers use several microphones to capture different sounds at different volumes and pitches.

Audio engineers also work with numerous microphone accessories, such as a microphone stand to position the microphone perfectly and a pop filter and shock mount to remove unwanted frequencies. 


Countless Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs) are available for audio engineers to facilitate the editing and mixing process. 

One great option is Soundtrap. It offers a user-friendly interface with accessible features that allow you to perform essential tasks like recording, editing, and mixing. It's a cloud-based platform, which means you can access your projects from any device with an internet connection.

Critical Listening

The toolbox also includes critical listening skills that enable you to make decisions as you work through the mixing process. To become a great audio engineer, you need to train your ears to hear audio in a detailed and analytical way. With well-trained ears, you will be able to identify problems in sound and correct them.

Mastering engineer in the studio

To become a great audio engineer, you need to train your ears to analyze audio

Recording: Capturing the Perfect Sound

The primary role of an audio engineer is to capture the perfect sound by effectively using a range of audio hardware and software.

Audio recording is a vast field on its own, and any good audio engineer knows this area like the back of their hand.

​Microphone Placement

You'll need to select the right microphones and preamps to start the recording process. Choose the placement of microphones around the instruments or sound sources strategically to capture the tone and dynamics of the performance with minimal bleed and noise.

​Gain Staging

Once the microphones are set up, connect them to a mixing console, preamp, or audio interface to begin recording and fine-tuning the audio. Pay attention to audio levels, aiming for a balance of volume and clarity. This step, also known as gain staging, is crucial in order to avoid clipping or distortion.

There are various tools and techniques essential for capturing high-quality sound. These may include using hardware signal processors, software audio plugins, and meticulous editing in your DAW. 

Soundtrap is a great choice for this with its flexible, cloud-based options; it boasts various features designed to help you easily capture the perfect sound. 

After the recording, Soundtrap also includes amazing tools for continuing to build the production, such as virtual instruments, loop libraries, and features for real-time collaboration.

Mixing: Crafting the Sonic Landscape

One of your key responsibilities as an audio engineer is to shape and balance the elements in a mix. Doing so lets you craft a sonic landscape that brings out the best in each track. This process is vital to ensuring that your final output is cohesive and engaging for the audience.

When you begin mixing, you'll want to focus on creating a sense of space and depth by using panning, equalization, compression, and time-based effects to achieve this. 


Panning allows you to place the elements across the stereo field from left to right, giving each instrument its own space. 


Equalization gives you the ability to enhance or reduce specific frequencies, ensuring that each element occupies a unique place in the mix. 

It's especially important to use techniques like low-cut and strategic cuts to remove boxiness or 'mud' in order to create space for other instruments and enhance key frequencies that bring out the best in each element.

A good rule of thumb is to start by cutting frequencies. Decide which track in the mix should be more prominent, like a vocal or piano performance, then find other tracks with overlapping frequencies that are masking it. Then, you can make EQ cuts in the overlapping frequencies.

Apply boosts only once you've cleaned the mix as much as possible using cuts.

It's important to make these adjustments with the mix as a whole; soloing a track might seem like a good idea, but it can actually be counterproductive as you'll lose the connection to the overall sound of the mix and make decisions hearing just one element.

Read more: Breakdown of EQ Mixing: Parametric vs. Visual vs. Graphic Equalizers

Image of the Visual EQ interface in Soundtrap Studio

The Visual Equalization tool in Soundtrap.


Compression is used to control the dynamic range of elements in the mix, providing a more balanced listening experience. A wide range of types of compressors are suited for different situations, and it's important to learn about all of them.

The main job of compression is to help even out any elements with a wide dynamic range that causes them to stick out through the mix more than necessary.

Always apply compression in moderation first; over-compressing can kill the energy and vibe of a performance. There are exceptions to situations where heavy-handed compression is a great tool, but typically, using compression for small adjustments leads to a more natural-sounding mix.

Time-Based Effects

Time-based effects include effects like reverb and delay, which give you the ability to create a sense of width and depth in the mix.

When working with a DAW like Soundtrap, you'll have access to various mixing features that can help streamline your workflow. Some of these features include:

  • EQ: Use their built-in equalizers to adjust the frequency balance of your tracks.

  • Compression: Control the dynamics of tracks in your mix.

  • Delay: Add a sense of space and depth by using delay.

  • Reverb: Add a sense of space and dimension by applying reverb to your tracks.

  • Automate Volume: Adjust the volume of individual elements over time to create dynamic changes in your mix.

  • Fade In/Out: Create smooth transitions between sections of your project by fading tracks in and out.

You should continually evaluate your mix and adjust as needed. Don't hesitate to experiment with different techniques and approaches, as this will help you develop your own unique style as an audio engineer.

The Importance of Acoustics

Another important aspect for an audio engineer to understand is the role room acoustics play in the overall quality of sound. 

Acoustics can greatly influence your decisions during recording, mixing, and mastering, whether working with music, voice work, or sound effects.

Uneven or unwanted reverberations in the room you're working in may result in muddled recordings, and reflections off surfaces often lead to phase issues and anomalies. By paying close attention to a room's acoustics, you can optimize the space for recording and capturing pristine audio.

Effect On Mix Decision

Acoustics don't only affect the recording phase; The playback environment can impact how you perceive the recorded audio, potentially causing you to make inaccurate decisions when adjusting levels, equalization, and other parameters. 

By being aware of your room's acoustic properties, you can make more informed choices during the mixing process, ultimately resulting in a polished mix that translates well to other listening environments.

Acoustics are also important for live sound engineering. In a concert or event setting, managing the acoustics of the space is essential in delivering a clear and enjoyable audio experience for the audience. Understanding the nuances of live acoustics can help you better control sound levels, feedback, and intelligibility, leading to successful events.

Read more: Soundproofing Tips for Music Producers: Make Your Home Studio Sound Better

An image of a sound treated home studio with a mic in the foreground

Acoustics can greatly influence your decisions during recording, mixing, and mastering.

Mastering: The Final Touch

One of your primary responsibilities as an audio engineer is to prepare the final mix for distribution. Mastering is critical to this process. 

At this stage, you focus on fine-tuning the overall sound and stereo imaging to achieve a balanced, polished, and cohesive sound.

Whether you're working on a single song or an entire album, mastering ensures the music will translate well to various playback systems, from car speakers and headphones to professional sound systems. Consistency across different listening environments is key for your listeners and your reputation as an audio engineer.

In modern times, technology has brought convenience to the mastering process. Automated mastering tools featured in Soundtrap make it possible to achieve professional-sounding results more efficiently. These tools utilize artificial intelligence and advanced algorithms to analyze your track and apply processing, such as equalization, compression, and limiting, based on the characteristics of your music.

Even with these amazing automated tools available to you, developing your ears and relying on your instincts to make informed decisions during mixing and mastering is essential. Every song is unique, and it's up to you to bring out its best qualities during the mastering process.

Audio Engineering Careers

There are many great career paths and opportunities in audio engineering, offering diverse job options for those passionate about music, sound, and technology. 

Here are some popular audio engineering jobs with their typical tasks and responsibilities:

  1. Music Producer: Producing, arranging, and overseeing the recording of songs. You would be responsible for managing an album or track's sound quality, mixing, and mastering. Producing music involves much more than the typical audio engineer job, but all audio engineer skills are vital to becoming a great producer.

  2. Live Sound Engineer: Working with live events, concerts, and performances to ensure the optimal sound quality for the audience and performers. This typically involves setting up microphones, stage monitors, and PA speakers and mixing the band’s different elements.

  3. Recording Engineer: Operating and maintaining recording equipment in a studio environment. You will capture and reproduce high-quality audio for various media formats, such as songs and albums, scores for films and tv shows, podcasts, or voiceovers.

  4. Sound Designer: Creating and editing sound effects for film, television, video games, and other multimedia productions. This may involve recording original sounds or manipulating and layering existing samples to create a desired effect.

  5. Post-production Audio Engineer: Editing, mixing, and mastering audio tracks for film, television, and other visual media. You will ensure that dialogue, music, and sound effects are balanced and appropriate for the final product.

When it comes to audio engineer salaries, the figures can vary depending on the specific role, level of experience, and industry. Your salary will increase as you gain experience and build a reputation in the industry, depending on the job and location. 

The average audio engineer salary is $96,653 annually, though this number can vary depending on the audio engineering career you pursue.

By pursuing a career in audio engineering, you can combine your passion for sound, technology, and creativity, working in a variety of industries and roles. The possibilities are vast, and with dedication and effort, you can find the perfect career path that suits your unique interests and skills.

Challenges and Problem-Solving

One of the most important skills of an audio engineer is the ability to deal with challenges. Finding solutions is part of the job, and troubleshooting and solving problems effectively is crucial to your success. 

Let's look at some of the common issues you may face and discuss strategies to overcome them.

Limited Equipment And Acoustics

One challenge you will likely encounter is working in a client's studio with less-than-ideal acoustics or gear. In situations like this, it's crucial that you're able to think on your feet and make quick decisions on how to maximize the equipment and space available to you in order to deliver the best possible recording. 

Use acoustic foam, sound panels, or other creative ways to set up the best possible environment for the recording. Think about how you can better place microphones in order to minimize bleed and maximize the captured audio quality.

Technical Issues With Equipment

Be ready to adapt and solve problems. Use your critical thinking skills and come up with alternative solutions whenever problems arise. When dealing with technical issues, you should be able to diagnose the problem and, if necessary, find alternative equipment or software to resolve the issue effectively while minimizing any disruption to the session flow.

The Art of Collaboration

Collaboration is a vital aspect of being a professional audio engineer. You'll work closely with artists, producers, and other professionals, and your primary focus should be understanding their vision and translating it into a successful audio production. To achieve this goal, you'll need strong communication skills. 

When getting started in your career, it's also a good idea to actively seek opportunities for collaboration. Learn how to work with all types of personalities. Remember that people most of all want to work with those who are easygoing and fun.

While working together, it's important for you to be flexible and adaptable in your approach. Keep in mind that collaboration aims to combine creative inputs and technical expertise into a cohesive and polished final product. 

Being open to new ideas and respectfully giving and receiving feedback is the key to successful collaboration in audio engineering. And always make sure you're on time!

Modern technology has made collaboration easier than ever. Soundtrap is pushing the envelope here, too: It offers a live online collaboration feature, allowing audio engineers and musicians to work together seamlessly, irrespective of their physical location.

Ultimately, your ability to collaborate effectively will contribute to the projects' success and help you grow and develop as an audio engineer. This will help you form lasting connections within the industry, eventually propelling your career forward.

Three content creators using different instruments to collaborate on music at their home recording studios

Collaboration with other musicians is a big part of being an audio engineer.

Becoming a Professional Audio Engineer

Starting a career in audio engineering is exciting! It's important to build up your audio engineer resume so you can show potential employers your understanding of the mechanics of recording and audio engineering skills. 

Let's break down some of the important steps that can help you on your path to becoming a professional audio engineer.

High School Diploma or Equivalent

Firstly, completing your high school diploma or equivalent education is very helpful to become an audio engineer. Participating in school music and theater productions can give you hands-on experience with audio equipment and processes.

Audio Engineering Courses

Once you've finished high school, enhance your technical knowledge by enrolling in audio engineering courses or professional programs. These courses typically cover a range of topics, including sound design, audio mixing/mastering, and recording techniques. They provide a solid foundation in the technical aspects of sound and can significantly improve your career prospects.

You can certainly work your way up from an internship all the way to a professional engineer, but having some formal education will never hurt and can help qualify you for positions that require it.

Vocational schools and community colleges often have audio engineering courses at affordable prices. Also, many four-year colleges offer degree programs in audio engineering and related fields.

An online course can also be a great option if you don't live somewhere with audio engineering courses local to you.

Practical Experience

Gaining practical experience by working on real projects, internships, or apprenticeships is essential. 

Once you've completed an internship, you start looking for an assistant engineer position with a studio. Working on mixing projects in your home studio can also help you gain experience.

Practical experience will give you the opportunity to develop your creative sensibility and enhance your problem-solving skills, making you an all-round better audio engineer.


Network with professionals in the industry and become active in online forums and social media groups related to audio engineering. Networking can lead to potential job opportunities, collaborations, and valuable industry insights. 

Keep in mind that networking is not just about swinging business cards to anyone interested enough; it's all about making a human connection with the person you're meeting. Don't approach networking as a task to gain something from the person you're meeting. Instead, focus on getting to know them. 

Be genuine. The goal is not to land deals like a salesperson; it's to meet like-minded people in the industry. Eventually, this will lead to real relationships and more introductions.

About the author

Tero Potila is a professional music composer and producer. His career combining knowledge and experience from music, TV, film, ad, and game industries gives him a unique perspective that he shares through posts on

Soundtrap — the online music studio

Making music is more than just a hobby — it’s a form of self-expression, a way to unleash your creativity, and a means for you to bring your unique voice to the world.

Soundtrap is the ultimate audio production software for music makers and producers to easily collaborate and create music online, with thousands of audio loops, instruments, and samples only a click away. 

Get started with Soundtrap today!